Working memory and automaticity (automatic recall of facts):
· Working memory limits mathematical performance. Gifted children tend to benefit from a superior working memory, while children with mathematical learning disabilities suffer from a deficient working memory. (National Mathematics Advisory Panel (NMAP) Final Report, 2008)
· Students with math facts anxiety typically have difficulty with working memory, and then use the limited working memory for worrying when doing math. (Ashcraft & Kirk, 2001.)
· While working memory increases with age, it can be increased at any age, mainly by developing fast, automatic recall of facts or procedures from long-term memory. (Schneider & Shiffrin, 1977, Shiffrin & Schneider, 1977) This can help any student, but is especially beneficial for those with mathematics learning disabilities or math anxiety.